Transformers are very important electrical component that helps transfer loads of electricity from one place to another via electromagnetic induction. The name of the device itself means that it transforms electric current transferring from one source to another modifying the voltage and current and maintaining the frequency all throughout the sourcing of the power.
How does it work?
Keep in mind that transformers do not generate electrical power but only transfers them from one AC circuit to another. This is done via magnetic coupling. In electricity generation and supply, the ability to convert voltages alternating them from low voltages to higher voltages is important because this helps in avoiding generation and distribution loses. We have voltage transformers that helps maintain this pace and make the conversion as smooth as possible.
Utilizing this very important law, transforms are able to convert electrical energy from one value to another by linking together two or more electrical circuits using a common oscillating magnetic circuit produced by the transformer itself.
Single Phase voltage transformer
Consisting of two electrical coils of wire – “Primary Winding” and the “Secondary Winding” also known as secondary transformers, single phase voltage transformers help connect the two currents by wrapping them in a core formed from a closed magnetic iron circuit. They are not totally closely wrapped but are connected via electromagnetic field formed and induced by passing electricity from the circuit from the receiving side.
Primary vs Secondary Windings
Coils are turned around a core but are separated to distinguish which side is the receiving end and which is the delivering end. Usually, the Primary winding is the receiving end and the Secondary winding is the delivering side to the circuit where it distributes the circuit. The purpose of the secondary transformers is to take the modified current and deliver the current to the intended end. The primary winding usually has the higher voltage compared to the secondary.
How the transformer does the job
Alternating current in the core can be modified to increase the voltage of the secondary voltage in comparison to the primary. It could also decrease the voltage alternately. Usually stepping down the voltage is done when it is being distributed to residential areas where lower voltage is needed. When it is time to distribute loads to different areas in a large scale cable grid, the step-up transformers can help do the job. There is also a condition that exist where no changes in the voltage is made and it is rather called Impedance transformer used for isolating adjoining electrical circuits.